Chapter 5: San Diego's Mexican Community, 1850-1910
1. What was the Antonio Garra Uprising in 1851?
The spark that set off the revolt was the attempt by the United States authorities to collect a state tax on Indians, although, the long term causes of the uprising originated from decades of white encroachments into Indian territory.
The rebellion began as a raid to get food. Led by Garra a small band of Cupeños allied with some Yuman raiders stole a herd of sheep near the Colorado River killing five Americans. When they returned to the Agua Caliente ranchería on November 21, 1851, Garra ordered his men to kill all the whites in the region, with the exception of William Marshall, an American who had married a Cupeño woman and who ran a local store. Marshall, evidently joined in slaying three other Americans and in attacking Warner's rancho the next day. The Cupeño's took all of the livestock and movables from Warner's ranch, but Warner himself was absent and escaped certain death.
These raids and killings, along with subsequent pursuit and skirmishes with the Hispano-Anglo expedition, constituted the Garra rebellion.